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Hysteroscopy & Laparoscopy London


What is hysteroscopy?

Hysteroscopy is an examination of the endometrial cavity. It is a recommended diagnostic and treatment procedure for infertility investigation. It is used to diagnose and treat various pathological conditions of the endometrial cavity, such as polyps, uterine fibroids, and uterine septum. Hysteroscopy is a minimal invasive procedure and is conducted without incisions in a matter of minutes. Post-operative pain is negligible, and the patient can resume her normal activities within a few hours.


  • Itching
  • Pain caused by lumps
  • Bleeding

How is hysteroscopy performed?

Hysteroscopy is initiated by inserting a magnifying telescope in the endometrial cavity, through vagina and cervix, inside the uterine cavity. During the procedure, an overview of the cervical lumen, a panoramic imaging of the endometrial cavity, a detection of tubal ostia and a thorough investigation of all pathological findings are obtained consecutively. Using an appropriate light source and a high-resolution camera, the capability exists to concurrently monitor the endometrial cavity contents, print photographs and record the procedure to a DVD.

In which cases is a hysteroscopy recommended?

The prevalent indications for a hysteroscopy are the following:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding, where an evaluation of the pathology of the endometrial cavity is recommended to rule out malignant tumours.
  • Abnormally painful menstruation and pelvic pain.
  • Unusually divergent or lightly flowing menstruation.
  • Morphological anomalies of the uterus such as a uterine septum.

Hysteroscopy is also recommended to women experiencing infertility conditions:

  • To evaluate a previous hysterosalpingography or ultrasonographic finding: Adhesions, polyps, uterine fibroids et al.
  • To investigate continuous miscarriages.
  • When pregnancy has not been achieved following two continuous IVF treatment cycles.
  • To investigate unexplained infertility, combined with a laparoscopy.

When should a hysteroscopy be performed?

Hysteroscopy is ideally performed between the 8th and 12th day of period, allowing us to evaluate the quality of the endometrial system which is at its productive activity stage during that time. Performing a hysteroscopy on the second phase of a period is not recommended, as the procedure may harm a potential pregnancy in its early stages.

What is a laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy is a method of surgical diagnosis and treatment. It is not done via an open surgery approach, but instead the doctor, through small ‘holes’ examines directly the organs of the abdomen and collects useful information using the appropriate laparoscopic tools. These tools have a tube-like shape, and a small diameter thus making it easier to be inserted through the abdominal wall, leaving the smallest scar possible. Laparoscopic surgery is applicable to the entire range of issues of the intra-abdominal region, with some exceptions.

How is a laparoscopy performed?

The woman undergoes general anaesthesia. The laparoscopy starts with a small incision at the umbilicus, through which a thin needle passes, which is used to ‘inflate’ the abdomen, with 2 to 3 litres of gas. When the abdomen swells like a ‘balloon’, the organs of the abdomen are moved away from the abdominal wall and then we insert the laparoscope. The laparoscope consists of a thin-diameter tube, 5 or 10 mm, that contains a series of lenses and a small camera at one end. When we insert the laparoscope, the surgeon examines the pelvic organs from a monitor where the image from the camera is projected. Thus, the surgeon can see in detail all the organs located in the pelvis, such as the uterus, the ligaments, the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, the bladder, the peritoneum and other organs. After the laparoscopy ends, all the gas that was inserted to the abdomen is ejected, and the abdomen reverts to its normal size. In the case where laparoscopy is used for a laparoscopic surgery procedure, 2 or 3 thin tubes can be inserted in the lower abdomen. Through these tubes, the surgeon inserts surgical instruments to perform the surgery.

When is laparoscopy used?

In gynaecology, laparoscopy is used as a diagnostic method in many situations such as:

  • Unexplained infertility.
  • Check of tubal patency.
  • Endometriosis.
  • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • Acute abdominal pain.
  • Polycystic ovaries.
  • Ectopic pregnancy.
  • Structural defects of the womb and its accessories.
  • Taking biopsies from different points of the abdominal cavity.

Also, the usage of laparoscopy for therapeutic purposes has a place in the following situations:

  • Removal of benign cysts of the ovaries.
  • Complete hysterectomy.
  • Salpingectomy and fallopian incision.
  • Removal of an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Removal of endometriosis hotbeds.
  • Removing of endometriosis cysts from the ovaries.
  • Removal of uterine fibroids.
  • Treatment of adhesions.
  • Treatment of assorted twists.

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