Vaginal Infections & STD's London

 

What is vaginitis?

The term vaginitis refers to the inflammation of the vagina. It is usually a result of the disruption of the normal balance of vaginal bacteria, but it may also be caused by an infection or due to a decrease in oestrogen production after menopause. Vaginitis is usually manifested by the presence of itching and increased fluids in the vagina, which sometimes have an unpleasant odour. Vaginal disorders are currently the most common health problem faced by women and they are the most common reason for a woman to visit her gynaecologist.

Conditions

  • Disruption of the balance of the bacteria in the vagina
  • Itching

What are the most common types of vaginitis?

The most common types of vaginitis are:

  • Bacterial vaginitis, which is due to excessive growth of some bacteria that live and reproduce normally in the vagina.
  • Candidiasis: usually due to a fungus present in the vagina (Candida albicans).
  • Trichomoniasis which is caused by a parasite usually transmitted by sexual contact.
  • Vaginal atrophy or atrophic vaginitis, a result of reduced oestrogen production after menopause.

What are the symptoms of vaginitis?

The most common symptoms of vaginitis are:

  • Changes of colour, odour or amount of vaginal fluid.
  • Irritation or itching in the vagina.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • Pain when urinating.
  • Slight vaginal bleeding or spotting.

How are vaginal infections treated?

Vaginitis, although at first glance seems to be a simple thing, can be one of the most difficult to address gynaecological problems. This is due to the distinctiveness of the physiology of the vagina and the complexity of the fine balances on which the proper functioning rests. Treatment entails taking a combination of oral antibiotics and vaginal suppositories or creams. However, even after the treatment, vaginitis can recur due to resilience being formed, or a reinfection happening.

What is Mycosis or Yeast Infection?

Within the vaginal fluids there are microbes that protect women from infections (Lactobacillus). Apart from these microbes there are others, but they are at a very small percentage. There are fungi in place whose percentage does not exceed 2%. In special cases (antibiotics, vaginal washes etc.) where Lactobacillus are being destroyed, fungi develop and the most common is Candida albicans. More than 80% of women have been pestered from a fungal infection. Mycosis is a very common vaginal infection and it is not considered a sexually transmitted disease.

What are the causes for mycosis?

Mycosis is an opportunistic infection and is related with factors that cause it, such as:

  • Broad spectrum antibiotics.
  • Diabetes.
  • Frequent intravaginal washes.
  • Immunosuppression.
  • Spiral.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Poor hygiene.
  • Use of cortisone.

What are the symptoms of mycosis?

Mycosis causes intense itching in the vaginal area. It also exhibits an increased amount of white vaginal fluids which have a cheesy texture. These liquids are odourless and thick. Finally, another symptom of mycosis is pain during urination and sexual intercourse.

How is mycosis cured?

There are treatments that last a day and treatments that last 3-7 days. Chronic mycosis usually needs treatment with pills, which lasts longer. We should never self-diagnose and treat because there is the risk of error or coexistence of the mycosis with another infection. Additionally, drugs exist that can mitigate the symptoms without curing the infection.

What is Chlamydia?

Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexual transmit-ted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia Trachomatis. It is one of the most common infections and is affecting worldwide 4,2% of the women and 2,7% of men.

What are the symptoms of Chlamydia infection?

Most people who are infected have no symptoms. When symptoms do develop this can take a few weeks following infection to occur.

Symptoms in women are:

  • Vaginal discharged
  • Burning sensation during urination
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease, if the infection spreads to the upper genital track
  • Infertility
  • Ectopic Pregnancy

Symptoms in men are:

  • Discharge from the penis
  • Burning sensation during urination
  • Pain or swelling of one or both testicles

How does Chlamydia get Transmitted?

  • Can be spread during vaginal, anal & oral intercourse
  • Can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during child-birth
  • The eye infections may also be spread by personal contact, flies, and contam-inated towels

How do we diagnose Chlamydia?

By screening test which is recommended:

  • Yearly in sexually active women under the age of twenty-five
  • At higher risk patients
  • At the first prenatal visit

Testing can be done on the urine or a swab of the cervix, vagina or urethra Rectal or mouth swabs are required to diagnose infections in those areas.

Prevention of Chlamydia?

  • Use of condoms
  • Having intercourse with only one other person, who is not infected

Treatment of Chlamydia?

Chlamydia can be cured by antibiotics and you need to visit your doctor for diag-nosis & treatment. Both the partners must be treated.

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